Seleucid Empire


The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexander's empire.

The partition of Alexander's empire (323-281 BC)

Alexander the Great left a huge empire of Persio-Greek culture to his successors (the Diadochi or Diadochoi), who jostled for supremacy over portions of his empire.

Silver coin of Seleucus I Nicator, founder of the Seleucid Dynasty in 323 BC

The empire was divided into three major portions, controlled by the descendants of Ptolemy Soter in Egypt, Antigonus Monopthalmos (literally "One-eyed") in Greece, and Seleucus in the Mideast.

The Seleucid Empire, was founded in 323 BC by Seleucus I Nicator and had its capital at Babylon. It controlled a large region including modern-day Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Mesopotamia, Persia, and Bactria (eastward to the Indus River).

By about 281 BC, only two dynasties remained in Alexander's old empire — the Seleucid dynasty in the east and the Ptolemaic dynasty in the south.

Invasion and loss of India (304 BC)

Seleucus I invaded India (modern Punjab in northen India and Pakistan) in 304 B.C., which was then the Mauryan empire ruled by Chandragupta Maurya. It is said that Chandragupta put an army of 100,000 men and 9,000 war elephants and forced Seleucus to conclude an alliance and to give him his daughter in marriage.

Seleukos sent an ambassador named Megasthenes to Chandragupta's court, who repeatedly visited Pataliputra (modern Patna in Bihar state), capital of Chandragupta. Megasthenes has written detailed descriptions of India and Chandragupta's reign.

Death of Seleucus I (281 BC)

Other territories were lost (Gedrosia on the coast of the Arabian Sea and Arachosia on the west of the Indus River) until Seleukos was assassinated in 281 B.C. The Seleucid empire disintegrated soon after into Parthia (Arsaces as King), Syria (Antiochus I as king) and Bactria (Diodotus as king).

Greco-Bactrian secession (250 BC)

Diodotus, who was governor for the Bactrian territory asserted independence in 250 BC to form the Greco-Bactrian kingdom. This kingdom was characterized by a rich Hellenistic culture, and was to continue its domination of Bactria until around 125 B.C. when it was overrun by the invasion of northern nomads. One of the Greco-Bactrian kings Demetrius I of Bactria invaded India from 180 B.C. to form the Greco-Indian kingdom, which was to last until 1 B.C.

Parthian secession (250 BC)

A Parthian tribal chief called Arsaces took over the Parthia territory of the Seleucid Empire around 250 B.C. as well, to form the Arsacid dynasty, starting point of the powerful Parthian Empire.

Anthiochian Syria

In the West, Syria was governed by Antiochus I.

Greece campaigns (192 BC)

Antiochus III the Great is considered the greatest of the Seleucid monarchs, but his campaigns in Greece in 192 BC attracted the attention of the Roman Republic, who exacted punitive war indemnities.

The Seleucids subsequently declined, and the Seleucid dynasty itself eventually vanished in the mid-1st century BC.

Seleucid rulers

There were over 30 kings of the Seleucid dynasty from 323 to 60 BC.

See also:

Seleucid dynasty
Parthian Empire
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
Indo-Greek Kingdom