1867 1868 1869 - 1870 - 1871 1872 1873
| Decades: |
1840s 1850s 1860s - 1870s - 1880s 1890s 1900s
| Centuries: |
18th century - 19th century - 20th century
- January 6 - The inauguration of the Musikverein (Vienna).
- January 10 - John D. Rockefeller incorporates Standard Oil
- January 15 - A political cartoon for the first time symbolizes the United States Democratic Party with a donkey ("A Live Jackass Kicking a Dead Lion" by Thomas Nast for Harper's Weekly).
- January 26 - American Civil War: Virginia rejoins the Union
- January 27 - First college sorority, Kappa Alpha Theta, is formed at DePauw University
- February 2 - It is revealed that the famed Cardiff Giant was just carved gypsum and not the petrified remains of a human.
- February 3 - The 15th Amendment to the United States Constitution is passed
- February 10 - Anaheim, California is incorporated.
- February 10 - The YWCA is founded (New York City)
- February 12 - Women gain the right to vote in Utah Territory.
- February 23 - Military control of Mississippi ends and it is readmitted to the Union.
- February 25 - Hiram Rhoades Revels, a Republican from Mississippi, is sworn into the United States Senate, becoming the first African American ever to sit in the United States Congress
- February 26 - In New York City, the first pneumatic-subway is opened.
- March 2 - Francisco Solano Lopez' last troops cornered by Triple Alliance troops at Cerro Cora. Lopez refuses to surrender and is killed. Fighting ends in Paraguay - the War of the Triple Alliance is over
- March 30 - Texas is readmitted to the Union following Reconstruction.
- April 11 - Irish peer Lord Muncaster and his entourage kidnapped in Greece
- May 12 - The Canadian province of Manitoba is created in response to Louis Riel's Red River Rebellion
- May 14 - First rugby match to be played in New Zealand, between the Nelson Football Club and Nelson College.
- July 13 - The Emser Depesche serves as a reason for a war between Prussia and France
- July 15 - Reconstruction: Georgia becomes the last former Confederate states to be readmitted to the Union.
- July 19 - Franco-Prussian War: France declares war on Prussia.
- September 2 - Franco-Prussian War: Battle of Sedan - Prussian forces defeat the French armies and take emperor Napoleon III and 100,000 of his soldiers prisoner at Sedan.
- September 4 - Emperor Napoleon III of France is deposed and the Third Republic is declared. Empress Eugenie flees to England with her children.
- September 20 - With Bersaglieri soldiers entering Rome at Porta Pia, the unification of Italy is completed. End of the temporal power of Papacy.
- October 2 – Rome becomes the capital of unified Italy
- November 1 - In the United States, the newly-created Weather Bureau (later renamed the National Weather Service) makes its first official meteorological forecast: "High winds at Chicago and Milwaukee... and along the Lakes".
- November 16 - Spanish Cortes proclaims Amadeo de Saboya as king Amadeus I of Spain.
- December – Assassination of Juan Prim, Prime minister of Spain
- January 8 - Miguel Primo de Rivera, dictator of Spain (d. 1930)
- January 15 - Pierre S. DuPont, industrialist
- February 7 - Alfred Adler, psychologist
- March 5 - Frank Norris, writer (d. 1902)
- March 17 - Horace Donisthorpe, myrmecologist (d. 1951)
- March 20 - Paul Erich von Lettow-Vorbeck, German general (d. 1964)
- April 22 - Vladimir Lenin, first leader of the USSR
- April 30 - [[Franz Leh�r]], composer (d. 1948)
- May 19 - Albert Fish, serial killer
- July 3 - Richard Bedford Bennett, eleventh Prime Minister of Canada.
- July 12 - Louis II of Monaco
- July 29 - George Dixon, Black Canadian boxer, first Black world boxing champion in any weight class.
- August 31 - Maria Montessori, educator
- September 26 - King Christian X of Denmark
- November 21 - Sigfrid Edström, Swedish sports official
- December 5 - [[Vitezslav Nov�k]], composer (d. 1949)
- December 18 - Saki, writer (d. 1918)
- February 11 - Jacob M. de Kempenaer, Dutch Minister of Internal Affairs (1848-1849?).
- February 11 - Leopold Eugen Mechura, composer
- February 19 - Nathaniel de Rothschild, French wine grower
- March 28 - George Henry Thomas, American general
- June 9 - Charles Dickens, British novelist
- July 20 - Jules Alfred Huot de Goncourt, Prix Goncourt
- October 12 - Robert E. Lee, Confederate general (b. 1807)
- November 4 - Comte de Lautreamont, French poet and writer
- November 28 – [[Fr�d�ric Bazille]], Impressionist painter
- December 5 - [[Alexandre Dumas, p�re]], author
- December 27 - General Prim, Spanish dictator.
- Henry Rowe - Gothic architectaf:1870
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