1874 1875 1876 - 1877 - 1878 1879 1880
| Decades: |
1840s 1850s 1860s - 1870s - 1880s 1890s 1900s
| Centuries: |
18th century - 19th century - 20th century
- January 1 - Queen Victoria proclaimed Empress of India by the Royal Titles Act, introduced by United Kingdom Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli.
- January 8 - Crazy Horse and his warriors fight their last battle with the United States Cavalry (Montana)
- January 20 - Ottoman Turkey rejects proposals of internal reform and Balkan provisions - Conference of Constantinople ends
- March 2 - U.S. presidential election, 1876: The United States declares Rutherford B. Hayes the winner of the election even though Samuel J. Tilden had won the popular vote on November 7, 1876
- March 4 - Emile Berliner invents the microphone.
- March 4 - Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's ballet Swan Lake debuts
- March 15 - The first Test cricket match, between England and Australia
- April 24 - Russia declares war of Turkey
- May 6 - Realizing that his people were weakened by cold and hunger, Chief Crazy Horse of the Oglala Sioux surrenders to United States troops in Nebraska.
- May 8 - At Gilmore's Gardens in New York City, the first Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show opens (ends May 11).
- May 10 - Romania declares itself independent from Turkey (recognized in 1881 after the end of the Romanian independence war).
- May 16 - Romania declares war on Turkey
- June 15 - Henry Ossian Flipper becomes the first African American cadet to graduate from the United States Military Academy.
- June 26 - Eruption of Mount Cotopaxi in Ecuador causes severe mudflows that wipe out surrounding cities and valleys - 1000 dead
- June 30 - British Mediterranean fleet is sent to Besika Bay
- July 9 - All England Croquet and Lawn Tennis Club begins its first lawn tennis tournament at Wimbledon.
- July 21 - A day after bloody rioting in Baltimore from Baltimore and Ohio Railroad workers and the deaths of 9 rail workers at the hands of the Maryland militia, workers in Pittsburgh stage a sympathy strike that is met with an assault by the state militia - Pittsburgh then erupts into widespread rioting.
- August 9 - Indian Wars: Battle of Big Hole - Near Big Hole River in Montana, a small band of [[Nez Perc�]] Indians who refused government orders to move to a reservation, clash with the United States Army. The army lost 29 soldiers and Indians lost 89 warriors in a US Army win.
- August 12 - Asaph Hall discovers Deimos, outer moon of Mars.
- August 17 - Arizona blacksmith F.P. Cahill is fatally wounded by Billy the Kid. Cahill will die the next day, becoming the first person killed by the Kid.
- August 18 - Asaph Hall discovers Phobos, inner moon of Mars.
- September 5 - Indian Wars: Oglala Sioux chief Crazy Horse is bayoneted by a United States soldier after resisting confinement in a guardhouse at Fort Robinson in Nebraska.
- October 10 - Following the recovery of Lieutenant-Colonel George Armstrong Custer's body from where he fell during the Battle of Little Big Horn the previous year, Custer is given a funeral with full military honors and is laid to rest at the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York.
- November 21 - Thomas Edison announces his invention of the phonograph, a machine that can record sound (this is considered to be Edison's first great invention) (Edison demonstrated the device for the first time on November 29).
- December 14 - Serbia restates its previous declaration of war against Turkey
- War between Russia and the Ottoman Empire (Russo-Turkish War), leading to the formation of Bulgaria in 1878. See Russian Foreign Affairs after the Crimean War.
- Nineteenth Century magazine founded.
- February 17 - [[Andr� Maginot]], politician, Maginot Line (d. 1932)
- February 19 - Gabriele M�nter, painter, member of Blaue Reiter (d. 1962)
- February 25 - Erich von Hornbostel, musicologist (d. 1935)
- March 2 – Consuelo Vanderbilt, Duchess of Marlborough (+ 1964)
- March 16 - Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (d. 1944)
- March 18 - Edgar Cayce, psychic (d. 1945)
- June 14 - Jane Bathori, opera singer (d. 1970)
- July 2 - Hermann Hesse, writer (d. 1962)
- July 6 - Arnaud Massy, champion golfer (d. 1950)
- July 13 - Erik Scavenius, Danish prime minister (d. 1962)
- August 7 - Ulrich Salchow, Swedish figure skater
- September 6 - Buddy Bolden, jazz musician (d. 1930)
- November 9 - Allama Iqbal, philosopher-poet (d. 1938)
- December 3 - Richard William Pearse, New Zealander airplane pioneer.
- Alois Kayser, German missionary, working on Nauru
- January 4 - Cornelius Vanderbilt, entrepreneur
- January 21 - Diamond Bessie Moore, prostitute
- September 2 - Constantine Kanaris - Greek politician
- September 5 - Crazy Horse, Chief of the Oglala Sioux.
- October 16 - [[Theodore Barri�re]], French dramatistaf:1877