Athletics

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Athletics, also known as track and field or track and field athletics, is a collection of sport events. The word is derived from the Greek word "athlos" meaning "contest". It is a collection of sport events, which can roughly be divided into running, throwing, and jumping.

Athletics was the original sport at the first Olympics back in 776 B.C where the only event held was the stadium-length foot race or "stade". The earliest recorded win was at these games in the stade race. Track and field events have been contested in all the Olympic Games and provide the backbone of the Olympics. Women were not allowed to participate in track and field events in the Olympics until 1928.

Modern athletic events are usually organised around a 400 m running track, on which most of the running events take place. Field events (jumping and throwing) often take place in the field in the centre of the running track.

Many athletic events have an ancient origin and were already conducted in competitive form by the ancient Greeks. Athletics was included in the Olympic Games in 1896 and has been part of the program ever since. An international governing body, the IAAF was founded in 1912. The IAAF established separate outdoor World Championships in 1983. The AAU (Amateur Athletic Union) was the governing body in the United States until it collapsed under pressure from advancing professionalism in the late 1970s. A new governing body called The Athletics Congress (TAC) was formed, it was later renamed USA Track and Field (USATF or USA T&F). An additional, less structured organization, the Road Runners Club of America (RRCA) also exists in the USA to promote road racing. Both organizations allow athletes to receive money for racing putting an end to the "shamateurism" that existed before.

Contents

Events

There are other variations besides the ones listed below but races of unusual length (e.g. 300 m) are run much less often. With the exception of the mile run, races based on imperial distances are rarely run on the track anymore since most tracks have been converted from a quarter mile (402.3 m) to 400 meters.

Men and women do not compete against each other. Women generally run the same distances as men although hurdles and steeplechase barriers are lower and the weights of the shot, discus, javelin and hammer are less.

World Records

Men

Event Record Athlete Date Place
100 m 9.78 s Tim Montgomery (USA) Sept 14, 2002 Paris, France
200 m 19.32 s Michael Johnson (USA) Aug 1, 1996 Atlanta, Ga., USA
400 m 43.18 s Michael Johnson (USA) Aug 26, 1999 Seville, Spain
800 m 1:41.11 Wilson Kipketer (Denmark) Aug 24, 1997 Cologne, Germany
1000 m 2:11.96 Noah Ngeny (Kenya) Sept 5, 1999 Rieti, Italy
1500 m 3:26.00 Hicham El Guerrouj (Morocco) July 14, 1998 Rome, Italy
mile 3:43:13 Hicham El Guerrouj (Morocco) July 7, 1999 Rome, Italy
2000 m 4:44.79 Hicham El Guerrouj (Morocco) Sept 7, 1999 Berlin, Germany
3000 m 7:20.67 Daniel Komen (Kenya) Sept 1, 1996 Rieti, Italy
5000 m 12:37.35 Kenenisa Bekele (Ethiopia) May 31, 2004 Hengelo, Netherlands
10,000 m 26:20.31 Kenenisa Bekele (Ethiopia) June 8, 2004 Ostrava, Czech Republic
20,000 m 56:55.6 Arturo Barrios (Mexico) March 30, 1991 [[La Fl�che]], France
25,000 m 1:13:55.8 Toshihiko Seko (Japan) March 22, 1981 Christchurch, NZ
30,000 m 1:29:18.8 Toshihiko Seko (Japan) March 22, 1981 Christchurch, NZ
3000 m steeplechase 7:55.72 Brahim Boulami (Morocco) Aug 16, 2002 [[Z�rich]], Switzerland
110 m hurdles 12.91s Colin Jackson (UK)
Liu Xiang (China)
Aug 20, 1993
Aug 27, 2004
Stuttgart, Germany
Athens, Greece
400 m hurdles 46.78 s Kevin Young (USA) Aug 6, 1992 Barcelona, Spain
High jump 2.45 m Javier Sotomayor (Cuba) July 27, 1993 Salamanca, Spain
Pole vault 6.14 m Sergey Bubka (Ukraine) July 31, 1994 Sestriere, Italy
Long jump 8.95 m Mike Powell (USA) Aug 30, 1991 Tokyo, Japan
Triple jump 18.29 m Jonathan Edwards (UK) Aug 7, 1995 [[G�teborg]], Sweden
Shot put 23.12 m Randy Barnes (USA) May 20, 1990 Los Angeles, Ca., USA
Discus 74.08 m [[J�rgen Schult]] (E. Germany) June 6, 1986 Neubrandenburg, E. Germany
Hammer 86.74 m Yury Syedikh (USSR) Aug 30, 1986 Stuttgart, W. Germany
Javelin * 98.48 m (New style)
104.80 m (Old style)
[[Jan Zelezn�]] (Czech Rep.)
Uwe Hohn (GDR)
May 25, 1996
20 July, 1984
Jena, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Decathlon 9026 pts Roman Šebrle (Czech Rep.) May 27, 2001 [[G�tzis]], Austria
10.64s (100 m), 8.11 m (long jump), 15.33 m (shot put), 2.12 m (high jump), 47.79s (400 m), 13.92s (110 m hurdles), 47.92 m (discus), 4.80 m (pole vault), 70.16 m (javelin), 4:21.98s (1500 m)
20 km walk 1:17:21 [[Jefferson P�rez]] (Ecuador) Aug 23, 2003 Paris, France
30 km walk 2:01:44.1 Maurizio Damilano (Italy) Oct 3, 1992 Cuneo, Italy
50 km walk 3:40:57.9 Thierry Toutain (France) Sept 29, 1996 [[H�ricourt]], France
4x100 m relay 37.40 s Mike Marsh, Leroy Burrell,
Dennis Mitchell, Carl Lewis (USA)
Aug 8, 1992 Barcelona, Spain
4x200 m relay 1:18.68 Mike Marsh, Leroy Burrell,
Floyd Heard, Carl Lewis (USA)
April 17, 1994 Walnut, Ca., USA
4x400 m relay 2:54.20 Jerome Young, Antonio Pettigrew,
Tyree Washington, Michael Johnson (USA)
July 22, 1998 New York City
4x800 m relay 7:03.89 Peter Elliott, Garry Cook,
Steve Cram, Sebastian Coe (UK)
Aug 30, 1982 London, England
4x1500 m relay 14:38.8 Thomas Wessinghage, Harald Hudak,
Michael Lederer, Karl Fleschen (W. Germany)
Aug 17, 1977 Cologne, W. Germany
4x110 m hurdles relay 54.40s University of Tennessee (USA) May 22, 1981 Knoxville, Tenn., USA
Marathon 2:04:55 Paul Tergat (Kenya) Sept 28, 2003 Berlin, Germany

Note : Two record distances are given for the men's javelin event ; this is because in the 1980s, the men's event was throwing at distances which caused many "flat landings" and judges at the event were having trouble discerning the exact point at which the javelin had landed and whether the throw was legal. In 1985, the specs of the javelin were changed by moving the centre of gravity forward by 4 cm.

Women

Event Record Athlete Date Place
100 m 10.49 s Florence Griffith Joyner (USA) July 16, 1988 Indianapolis, Ind., USA
200 m 21.34s Florence Griffith Joyner (USA) Sept 29, 1988 Seoul, S. Korea
400 m 47.60 Marita Koch (E. Germany) Oct 6, 1985 Canberra, Australia
800 m 1:53.28 [[Jarmila Kratochv�lov�]] (Czechoslovakia) July 26, 1983 Munich, W. Germany
1000 m 2:28.98 Svetlana Masterkova (Russia) Aug 23, 1996 Brussels, Belgium
1500 m 3:50.46 Qu Junxia (China) Sept 11, 1993 Beijing, China
2000 m 5:25.36 Sonia O'Sullivan (Rep. Ireland) July 8, 1994 Edinburgh, Scotland
3000 m 8:06.11 Wang Junxia (China) Sept 13, 1993 Beijing, China
5000 m 14:24.68 Elvan Abeylegesse (Turkey) June 11, 2004 Bergen, Norway
10,000 m 29:31.78 Wang Junxia (China) Sept 8, 1993 Beijing, China
20,000 m 1:05:26.6 Tegla Loroupe (Kenya) Sept 3, 2000 Borgholzhausen, Germany
25,000 m 1:27:05.8 Tegla Loroupe (Kenya) Sept 21, 2002 Mengerskirchen, Germany
30,000 m 1:45:50.0 Tegla Loroupe (Kenya) June 7, 2003 Warstein, Germany
3000 m steeplechase 9:01.59 Gulnara Samitova, (Russia) July 4, 2004 Heraklion, Greece
100 m hurdles 12.21 s Yordanka Donkova (Bulgaria) Aug 20, 1988 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
400 m hurdles 52.34s Yuliya Pechenkina (Russia) Aug 8, 2003 Tula, Russia
High jump 2.09 m Stefka Kostadinova (Bulgaria) Aug 30, 1987 Rome, Italy
Pole vault 4.91 m Yelena Isinbayeva (Russia) Aug 25, 2004 Athens, Greece
Long jump 7.52 m Galina Chistyakova (USSR) June 11, 1988 Leningrad, USSR
Triple jump 15.50 Inesa Kravets (Ukraine) Aug 10, 1995 [[G�teborg]], Sweden
Shot put 22.63 Natalya Lisovskaya (USSR) June 7, 1987 Moscow, USSR
Discus 76.80 Gabriele Reinsch (E. Germany) July 9, 1988 Neubrandenburg, E. Germany
Hammer throw 75.97 m Mihaela Melinte (Romania) May 13, 1999 Clermont-Ferrand, France
Javelin ** 71.54 m (New style)
80.00 m (Old style)
[[Osleidys Men�ndez]] (Cuba)
Petra Felke, GDR
July 1, 2001
September 9, 1999
Rethymno, Greece
Potsdam, Germany
Heptathlon 7291 pts Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA) Sept 23-24, 1988 Seoul, S. Korea
12.69s (110 m hurdles), 1.86 m (high jump), 15.80 m (shot put), 22.56s (200 m), 7.27 m (long jump), 45.66 m (javelin), 2:08.51 (800 m)
5 km walk 20:02.60 Gillian O'Sullivan (Rep. of Ireland) July 13, 2002 Dublin, Ireland
10 km walk 41:56.23 Nadezhda Ryashkina (USSR) July 24, 1990 Seattle, Wa., USA
4x100 m Relay 41.37 Silke Gladisch, Sabine Rieger,
Ingrid Auerswald, [[Marlies G�hr]] (E. Germany)
Oct 6, 1985 Canberra, Australia
4x200 m Relay 1:27.46 LaTasha Jenkins, LaTasha Colander-Richardson,
Nanceen Perry, Marion Jones (USA)
April 29, 2000 Philadelphia, Pa., USA
4x400 m Relay 3:15.17 Tatyana Ledovskaya, Olga Nazarova,
Mariya Pinigina, Olga Bryzgina (USSR)
Oct 1, 1988 Seoul, S. Korea
4x800 m Relay 7:50.17 Nadezhda Olizarenko, Lyubov Gurina,
Lyudmila Borisova, Irina Podyalovskaya (USSR)
Aug 5, 1984 Moscow, USSR
Marathon 2:15:25 Paula Radcliffe (UK) April 13, 2003 London, England, UK

Note: As with the men's event, the specification of the women's javelin has been changed. On April 1, 1999 the IAAF moved the centre of gravity forward by 3 cm in order to ensure a greater number of legal throws and to allow for more accurate distance measurement.

See also

External link

da:Atletik de:Leichtathletik [[et:Kergej�ustik]] es:Atletismo [[fr:Athl�tisme]] hr:Atletika it:Atletica leggera nl:Atletiek ja:陸上競技 pl:Lekkoatletyka pt:Atletismo simple:Athletics sv:Friidrott zh-cn:田径

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