- See Exile (disambiguation) for other meanings.
Exile has historically been used as a form of punishment, particularly for political opponents of those in power. The use of exile for political purposes can sometimes be useful for the government because it prevents the exilee from organizing in their native land or from becoming a martyr.
Exile represented a severe punishment, particularly for those, like Ovid or Du Fu, exiled to strange or backward regions, cut off from all of the possibilities of life as well as their families and associates. Dante describes the pain of exile in the Divine Comedy:
�. . . Tu lascerai ogne cosa diletta pi� caramente; e questo � quello strale che l'arco de lo essilio pria saetta. Tu proverai s� come sa di sale lo pane altrui, e come � duro calle lo scendere e 'l salir per l'altrui scale . . .�
". . . You will leave everything you love most: this is the arrow that the bow of exile shoots first. You will know how salty another's bread tastes and how hard it is to ascend and descend another's stairs . . ."
Paradiso XVII: 55-60
Exile has been softened, to some extent, in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, as exiles have received welcome in other countries and have either created new communities within those countries or, less frequently, returned to their homelands following the demise of the regime that exiled them.
Government in exile
- Main article: Government in exile.
During a foreign occupation or a coup, a government in exile of a country may be established.
Nation in exile
- Main article: Diaspora.
When large groups, or occasionally a whole people or nation is exiled, it can be said that this nation is in exile, or Diaspora. Nations that have been in exile for substantial periods include the Jews, who were deported by Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon in 597 BC and again in the years following the destruction of the second Temple in Jerusalem in the year AD 70.
A wealthy citizen who departs from a former abode for a lower tax jurisdiction in order to reduce his/her tax burden is termed a tax exile.
Famous people who have been in exile
(Listed alpabetically by last name)
- Dante Alighieri
- Emperor Bao Dai
- Michel Aoun
- Napoleon Bonaparte exiled from France to Elba and, later, St Helena
- Willy Brandt
- Bertolt Brecht
- Breyten Breytenbach
- Du Fu
- Albert Einstein
- Bobby Fischer self imposed exile from the United States to the Philippines
- Lion Feuchtwanger
- Sigmund Freud
- Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama, exiled from Tibet to India
- Heinrich Heine
- Victor Hugo exiled from France to the Channel Islands
- Arthur Koestler
- Pavel Kohout
- Lajos Kossuth
- Prince Nguyen Phuc Buu Chanh
- Peter Kropotkin
- Lenin self-exiled to Switzerland
- Lotte Lehmann
- Heinrich Mann
- Thomas Mann
- Ferdinand Marcos self-exiled from the Philippines to Hawaii
- Karl Marx
- [[Jos� Mart�]]
- Giuseppe Mazzini
- Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov
- Bob Powell
- [[Ferenc Pusk�s]]
- Prince Sauryavong Savang
- Crown Prince Soulivong Savang
- Emperor Haile Selassie
- Wole Soyinka
- Alfredo Stroessner
- Sun Yat-sen
- Oliver Tambo
- Leon Trotsky exiled to Turkey, Norway and Mexico
- Bruno Walter
- Mohammad Zaher Shah
- Nicholas I of Montenegro