Population density

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(If you were linked from a country article: the density there is based on land area, see below)

Population density can be used as a measurement of any tangible item. However it is most frequently applied to living organisms. Population density is usually expressed in terms of items or organisms per unit area.

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How to define population density?

Note that population density, according to this definition, depends on the scale of the sampling area used, and is hard to define as a real-valued continuous function over the area in question. If the items concerned are modelled as discrete points, the population density will jump up and down as the edge of the sampling area passes over individuals. Modelling the individuals as spatially extended objects has other problems, as the scale of the sampling area approaches the scale of an object (for example, a person's scale may be regarded as the size of the grounds of their dwelling place: for some people, this will be a large area).

To resolve some of these problems, population density may be regarded, like coastline distance, as a scale-dependent fractal quantity.

Biological population densities

Population density is a common biological measurement and is often used by conservationists as a more appropriate measure than absolute numbers. Low population densities may cause an extinction vortex, where low densities lead to further reduced fertility. This is referred to as the Allee effect, named after W. C. Allee, who first identified it. Examples of this may include;

1. Increased problems with locating mates in areas of low density.
2. Increased inbreeding in areas of low population density.
3. Increased susceptibility to catastrophic events in low population densities.

However it should be noted that different species will have different expected densities. For example r selected species commonly have high population densities, while k selected species may have lower population densities. Low population densities may be associated with specialised mate location adaptations such as specialised pollinators, as is found in the orchid family, (the Orchidaceae.) Insert non-formatted text here

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Human population density

For human beings, population density is the number of persons per unit of area (which may include or exclude inland water), though it may also be expressed in relation to habitable, inhabited, productive (or potentially productive) or cultivated area.

It is frequently measured in persons per square mile or persons per square kilometre or hectare, which can be obtained simply by dividing the number of persons by the land area measured in square miles or in square kilometers or hectares.

Commonly this may be calculated for a county, city, country or the entire world. In the country articles the density is based on land area. However, the list of countries by population density is based on total area, including inland water.

Countries or territories with the highest population densities are:

These territories share a relatively small area and an exceptionally high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing also on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation.

The most densely populated large state is Bangladesh, where 134 million people live in a highly agricultural area around the lower Ganges river, with a national population density in excess of 900 persons per km�. World overall population density presently averages 42 persons per km�.

Cities with exceptionally high population densities are often considered to be overpopulated, though the extent to which this is the case depends on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure or access to resources. Most of the largest densely-populated cities are in southern and eastern Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa also fall into the category.

City population is however, heavily dependent on the definition used for the urban area: densities will be far higher for the central municipality than when more recently-developed and as yet administratively unincorporated suburbs are included, as in the concepts of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter including sometimes neighbouring cities.

List of countries and their population densities

See also List of countries by population density, which also includes the areas and population numbers.

Country: Density per sq. Km:
Monaco 16329
Singapore 6751
Vatican City 2023
Malta 1249
Maldives 1004.9
Bahrain 987
Bangladesh 926
Barbados 642
Taiwan 627
Mauritius 588
South Korea 491
Netherlands 477
San Marino 448
Tuvalu 423
Lebanon 358
Belgium 338
Israel 335
Japan 335
India 319.3
Marshall Islands 312
El Salvador 307.5
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 300
Sri Lanka 298
Rwanda 281
Philippines 276
Comoros 275
Haiti 271
Vietnam 264
St. Lucia 260
Grenada 259.5
United Kingdom 246
Jamaica 245
Germany 231
Trinidad and Tobago 215
Nauru 213
Burundi 206.1
Liechtenstein 203
Italy 196
Federated States of Micronesia 194
Pakistan 188
Nepal 184
North Korea 182.3
Dominican Republic 178.8
Seychelles 176
Switzerland 176
Luxembourg 171
[[S�o Tom� and Pr�ncipe]] 170
Antigua and Barbuda 152
St. Kitts and Nevis 149
Andorra 144.5
Nigeria 141
Tonga 137
China 134.1
Kiribati 131
Moldova 131
Czech Republic 130
Denmark 125
Poland 123.5
Albania 122
The Gambia 121
Thailand 121
Guatemala 119
Indonesia 119
Kuwait 115
Armenia 112
Portugal 112
Slovakia 111
France 110
Hungary 109
Uganda 105
Serbia and Montenegro 104
Cape Verde 101
Cuba 101
Austria 97
Slovenia 96.9
Syria 93
Dominica 92.8
Romania 91.3
Azerbaijan 90
Malawi 88
Togo 88
Turkey 86.2
Cyprus 83.4
Croatia 83
Ghana 82
Macedonia 81
Greece 80.5
Ukraine 80
Spain 79
Bosnia and Herzegovina 78
Malaysia 76
Sierra Leone 76
Costa Rica 75.1
Cambodia 72.5
Egypt 71
Georgia 71
Lesotho 70.6
Morocco 70
Bulgaria 69.5
Qatar 69
Swaziland 65
East Timor 63.5
Myanmar 62
Brunei 61
Tunisia 60.7
Benin 60
Ethiopia 60
Samoa 60
Uzbekistan 57
Ireland 56
Honduras 55.8
Lithuania 55.1
Iraq 55
Mexico 54
Kenya 53.4
[[C�te d'Ivoire]] 53
Senegal 52
Belarus 50
Guinea-Bissau 48
Jordan 48
Tajikistan 48
Fiji 47
Burkina Faso 46
Bhutan 45
Afghanistan 43
Palau 42
Iran 40
Nicaragua 39.6
Eritrea 37
Latvia 37
Panama 37
Yemen 37
Colombia 36
Ecuador 36
South Africa 36
Cameroon 34
Zimbabwe 32
Estonia 31
United States of America 31
Guinea 30.4
United Arab Emirates 29
Venezuela 27
Madagascar 26.4
Liberia 26.3
Democratic Republic of the Congo 24
Kyrgyzstan 24
Laos 24
Mozambique 23.8
Bahamas 22
Peru 22
Djibouti 21
Brazil 20.7
Chile 20
Sweden 20
Tanzania 20
Uruguay 19
Finland 17.1
Solomon Islands 17
Equatorial Guinea 16.9
Vanuatu 16
New Zealand 15.1
Sudan 15
Argentina 14
Norway 14
Paraguay 14
Algeria 13.3
Zambia 13
Somalia 12.6
Oman 12.3
Belize 12
Saudi Arabia 12
Papua New Guinea 11
Mali 10.9
Turkmenistan 9.4
Angola 8.6
Congo 8.6
Russia 8.5
Bolivia 8
Niger 8
Chad 7.2
Kazakhstan 6
Central African Republic 5.8
Gabon 4.6
Guyana 3.2
Libya 3.1
Australia 3
Canada 3
Iceland 2.8
Botswana 2.7
Suriname 2.7
Mauritania 2.6
Namibia 2.2
Mongolia 1.7
Greenland 0.2

See also

External links

[[ast:Densid� de poblaci�n]] bg:Гъстота на населението [[ca:Densitat de poblaci�]] [[de:Bev�lkerungsdichte]] el:Πυκνότητα πληθυσμού [[es:Densidad de poblaci�n]] eo:Loĝdenso [[fr:Densit� de population]] lt:Gyventojų tankis nl:Bevolkingsdichtheid ja:人口密度 pl:Gęstość zaludnienia sl:Gostota prebivalstva [[fi:V�est�tiheys]] [[sv:Befolkningst�thet]] zh:人口密度

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